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Decoding Canine Influenza: Origins, Risks, and the Power of Vaccines

Updated: Dec 2, 2023


veterinarian looking at dog with canine influenza

As flu season reaches its zenith, it's not just us humans who find ourselves susceptible; those with little paws, our beloved canine companions, are also navigating the challenges of the canine influenza outbreak reported in the U.S. This recent development has sent waves of concern through the community of dog owners, prompting a heightened awareness of the well-being of our furry friends.


If you've noticed your dog exhibiting signs of lethargy and a runny nose, it's time to take these symptoms seriously. A visit to the vet is crucial, as these could be indicative of a viral disease, potentially canine influenza. In this blog post, we'll delve into the intricacies of canine influenza, unraveling its origins, the specific strains involved, and most importantly, what proactive steps you can take to safeguard your canine companion's health. Let's embark on a journey to understand canine influenza and equip ourselves with the knowledge necessary to ensure the well-being of our cherished pets.


Canine Influenza: Origins & Strains

canine influenza a virus
Photo credit: DVM 360

Canine influenza, commonly known as dog flu, is a respiratory infection affecting dogs and is primarily caused by the Influenza A virus. Notably, there are two distinct strains of the virus, namely H3N2 and H3N8, each with its own unique origin and history of affecting dogs.


The H3N8 strain, traced back to horses, was the first identified culprit responsible for causing influenza in dogs. This strain made its debut in the canine population in 2004, raising concerns about the potential impact of the virus on dogs' health.


On the other hand, the H3N2 strain has its roots in Asia and is believed to have undergone a transformation from avian (bird) influenza to affect dogs. The first documented case of H3N2 in dogs was reported in 2015, marking another significant development in our understanding of canine influenza.

canine influenza shown to come from horses
Photo credit: Today's Veterinary Practice

Initially, canine influenza was perceived as a serious and potentially lethal threat, akin to the human flu virus. However, over time, extensive research has revealed that the majority of dogs who contract the virus experience mild symptoms, and fatalities are relatively rare, occurring in less than 5% of cases.


To mitigate the spread of canine influenza, preventive measures have been implemented in the form of vaccines. These vaccines play a crucial role in building immunity among dogs and reducing the severity of symptoms if they do contract the virus. The introduction of vaccination has been a pivotal step in managing and controlling the impact of canine influenza on the canine population.

While the virus continues to be a concern for dog owners, advancements in veterinary medicine, coupled with increased awareness, have contributed to better outcomes for dogs affected by influenza. As ongoing research provides more insights into the virus and its variants, the veterinary community remains vigilant in adapting preventive strategies to ensure the well-being of our canine companions.


Understanding Canine Influenza Contagion: How Easily Does It Spread?

Canine influenza is not just a concern for individual dogs; it's a highly contagious viral infection that can swiftly pass from one furry friend to another. Canine influenza spreads through various mechanisms, primarily owing to its airborne nature and the respiratory secretions of infected dogs. Here's a breakdown of how the virus disseminates:

influenza dog sneezing is contagious
  • Airborne Transmission: The virus is highly contagious through the air. When an infected dog coughs, sneezes, or even barks, respiratory droplets containing the virus are released into the air. These droplets can travel short distances, potentially infecting other dogs in close proximity. This mode of transmission makes places like dog shelters, kennels, and day-care centers particularly susceptible to outbreaks.

  • Direct Contact: Close contact with an infected dog significantly increases the risk of transmission. This can occur during activities such as playing, sniffing, or licking. Dogs in shared spaces, such as kennels or day-care centers, are particularly vulnerable to direct contact transmission.

  • Contaminated Surfaces: Canine influenza can survive on surfaces for a considerable period. If an infected dog has come into contact with objects or surfaces, such as food bowls, toys, or bedding, the virus can be present. Dogs touching or interacting with these contaminated surfaces may contract the virus.

  • Human Clothing and Skin: The virus can temporarily reside on human clothing and skin. If a person has been in contact with an infected dog and then interacts with another dog, they can inadvertently transfer the virus. This highlights the importance of practicing good hygiene, including washing hands and changing clothing, to prevent human-mediated transmission.

If your dog has been in close proximity to an infected canine or has come into contact with items used by an affected dog, the risk of contracting the virus increases significantly. The infectious droplets can linger on surfaces for up to 48 hours, posing a potential threat to any unsuspecting canine that comes into contact with the contaminated area. Moreover, the virus can persist on clothing for 24 hours and on the skin for 12 hours, emphasizing the importance of thorough hygiene practices to prevent its spread.


Signs and Symptoms of Canine Influenza

The signs and symptoms of canine influenza typically manifest within a window of 2 to 5 days following exposure to the virus. Recognizing these indications is crucial for prompt identification and intervention. Here are key signs that should raise suspicion that your dog may be suffering from canine influenza:

  • Cough: Dogs infected with the influenza virus often develop a persistent cough. This can range from mild to severe and may be accompanied by other respiratory distress symptoms.

  • Runny Nose: An increased nasal discharge is a common symptom. The nose may be runny or show signs of discharge, contributing to the overall respiratory discomfort.

  • Difficulty in Breathing: Labored breathing or signs of respiratory distress may become apparent. Dogs may exhibit rapid breathing or struggle to catch their breath, especially during physical activity.

  • Fever: Elevated body temperature is a common response to viral infections. Monitoring your dog's temperature can provide crucial information about their health status.

  • Eye Discharge: In addition to nasal discharge, infected dogs may experience discharge from their eyes. This can be indicative of the virus affecting the respiratory and ocular systems.

canine influenza dog sleeping
  • Lethargy or Fatigue: Canine influenza often leads to a notable decrease in energy levels. Lethargy, fatigue, and an overall lack of enthusiasm for usual activities may be observed.

  • Loss of Appetite: Dogs with canine influenza may exhibit a reduced appetite or even a complete loss of interest in food. This can contribute to weight loss and further compromise their overall health.

  • Nasal Discharge: Apart from runny noses, there may be nasal discharge. This discharge can range in consistency and color, providing additional clues about the severity of the infection.

While these symptoms typically indicate a mild form of the condition, it's essential to note that in severe cases, dogs may progress to more critical respiratory issues such as pneumonia. In extreme situations, canine influenza can lead to fatalities. Thus, being vigilant about these signs and seeking veterinary attention promptly can play a pivotal role in ensuring the well-being of your furry companion.


Differentiating Canine Influenza and Kennel Cough

While canine influenza and kennel cough share similarities in terms of respiratory symptoms, it's crucial to recognize that they are distinct conditions with different causes, origins, and treatment approaches.


Canine influenza is a viral infection, specifically caused by the Influenza A virus. This respiratory illness can manifest with symptoms such as coughing, runny nose, difficulty in breathing, and fever. Unlike kennel cough, canine influenza is caused by a virus, making it challenging to treat directly with antibiotics. Instead, prevention through vaccination is a key strategy, emphasizing the importance of proactive measures to protect dogs from this contagious viral disease.


On the other hand, kennel cough, also known as canine infectious tracheobronchitis, is primarily a bacterial infection. It is often caused by a combination of bacteria, including Bordetella bronchiseptica. Kennel cough is characterized by a persistent, dry cough, and while it can cause discomfort, it is generally considered less severe than canine influenza. The good news is that kennel cough can be effectively treated with antibiotics, making it more responsive to pharmaceutical intervention.


The key distinction lies in the nature of the causative agents: viral for canine influenza and bacterial for kennel cough. This fundamental difference extends to their treatment strategies. While antibiotics can address kennel cough, the viral nature of canine influenza necessitates a focus on vaccination for prevention, as there is no direct antiviral cure.


Regular veterinary check-ups and vaccinations play a vital role in maintaining the health and well-being of our canine companions, safeguarding them from the diverse respiratory challenges they may face.


Diagnostic Tests for Canine Influenza

Given that the signs and symptoms of canine influenza overlap with those of various respiratory diseases, a precise diagnosis becomes crucial. Merely observing symptoms is insufficient for an accurate assessment, necessitating specific diagnostic tests to confirm the presence of canine influenza. One of the primary diagnostic tools employed is the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) test, particularly effective within the initial four days of symptom onset.

dog nasal swab for testing for canine flu or influenza
Photo credit: Clinician'sBrief

During the PCR test, a nasal swab is carefully administered to collect respiratory secretions. This swab is then subjected to laboratory analysis to detect the genetic material of the influenza virus. This early testing window is vital as the virus tends to be more detectable in the initial stages of infection.


If your dog continues to exhibit symptoms beyond the initial four days or up to a week, a blood test may be recommended. This test involves assessing antibody levels in the bloodstream. Elevated antibody levels can indicate exposure to the virus and the development of an immune response. This is particularly valuable in cases where the infection has progressed, and the virus may no longer be as readily detectable in respiratory secretions.


These diagnostic measures play a critical role in accurately identifying canine influenza, enabling veterinarians to differentiate it from other respiratory ailments and tailor treatment plans accordingly. The timely and precise diagnosis not only aids in the appropriate management of the disease but also contributes to preventing the potential spread of the virus to other canine companions. Regular veterinary consultations and adherence to recommended diagnostic protocols are essential in safeguarding the health of our beloved pets.


Managing Dog Flu: Treatment

Dog flu, while lacking a direct cure for the influenza virus strain, is indeed manageable and treatable through supportive care. In the absence of medications specifically designed to eliminate the virus, veterinarians adopt a comprehensive approach to alleviate symptoms and enhance the overall well-being of the affected dog.

veterinarian offering drugs for canine influenza

Supportive treatment, as prescribed by your veterinarian, typically includes medications aimed at relieving pain, reducing fever, stimulating appetite, and suppressing the persistent cough associated with canine influenza. These measures contribute to a more comfortable recovery for your furry companion, helping them navigate through the challenging symptoms of the flu.


In addition to treatment, vaccinations play a pivotal role in preventing dogs from contracting the virus in the first place. Your veterinarian may recommend routine vaccinations to bolster your dog's immune system against canine influenza, significantly reducing the risk of infection. It's a proactive strategy that contributes to the overall health and longevity of your pet.


Beyond medical interventions, there are additional preventive measures you can adopt to shield your dog from this respiratory ailment. These may include practicing good hygiene, minimizing exposure to infected dogs, and ensuring a clean living environment.


Shielding Your Pup: Proactive Steps to Prevent Dog Flu

Preventing dog flu is the foremost line of defense to ensure your canine companion's well-being. Employing a combination of practical and proactive measures can significantly reduce the risk of your dog contracting this respiratory ailment. Here's a guide on how to safeguard your pup from dog flu:

  • Get Your Dog Vaccinated: Vaccination is a key component in preventing dog flu. Regular vaccinations help build immunity, providing a strong defense against the virus.

  • Provide a Nutrient-Rich Diet: A well-balanced and nutritious diet plays a crucial role in bolstering your dog's immune system. Opt for high-quality dog food or adding a raw diet that supports overall health and vitality.

  • Limit Visits to Social Spaces: Minimize your dog's visits to grooming parlors, day-care facilities, boarding centers, and dog shows. These environments can be breeding grounds for viruses, including dog flu.

dog getting a bath after contact with canine flu
  • Practice Hygiene After Social Interactions: If your dog has been in social settings or encountered other dogs, take precautionary measures. Wash his collar, leash, or any other items he wore, and give him a bath immediately upon returning home.

  • Consider Acupressure Sessions: Schedule acupressure sessions for your pup as part of preventative care. Acupressure has been recognized for its immune-strengthening properties, offering an additional layer of defense against infections.

By incorporating these strategies into your dog care routine, you can significantly reduce the risk of dog flu and contribute to the overall health and happiness of your furry friend.


To Vaccinate or Not? Navigating Dog Flu Prevention and Risks

Ensuring the health and well-being of your furry friend often leads to the question: Should I get my dog vaccinated for dog flu? This section aims to provide clarity on the safety, necessity, and potential considerations associated with canine influenza vaccinations.

  • The Safety of Dog Flu Vaccination: First, it's essential to understand that the vaccination for dog flu is considered safe and generally carries minimal risks or side effects. Vaccines are formulated to stimulate the immune system, aiding in the development of protective antibodies without causing the disease itself.

  • Assessing the Need for Vaccination: Whether or not to vaccinate your dog depends on various factors, including your geographical location and your dog's exposure to other dogs. If you reside in an area with a heightened risk of canine influenza outbreaks or if your dog frequents places with high dog-to-dog interactions—such as kennels, day-care facilities, grooming parlors, dog parks, or dog shows—vaccination is strongly recommended.

  • Special Considerations: Senior dogs or those with pre-existing heart or respiratory conditions are particularly vulnerable to the complications of canine influenza. In such cases, vaccination becomes even more crucial to provide an added layer of protection against potential severe outcomes.

  • Individual Lifestyle and Risk Assessment: For dogs that do not interact with other dogs or visit areas with a history of canine influenza, the need for vaccination might be lower. It's advisable to discuss your dog's individual lifestyle and risk factors with your veterinarian to make an informed decision tailored to your pup's specific circumstances.

The decision-making process surrounding dog flu vaccination should be discussed with your veterinarian.


Canine Influenza and Quarantine: Safeguarding Others During Recovery

dog quarantined with canine flu

When it comes to a dog diagnosed with the canine influenza virus, implementing a quarantine is not just a precautionary measure but a critical step in preventing the spread of the infection to other dogs. This section delves into the necessity of quarantine and provides insights into the recommended duration, taking into consideration the specific strains of the virus.

  • The Imperative of Canine Influenza Quarantine: Upon confirmation of a canine influenza diagnosis, it becomes imperative to isolate the infected dog from others. The highly contagious nature of the virus, which can be transmitted through respiratory droplets, necessitates this precaution to curb potential outbreaks.

  • Recommended Quarantine Periods: For dogs infected with the H3N2 strain, a more extended quarantine period is advised. This strain has a prolonged shedding period, meaning the infected dog can continue to spread the virus for almost 24 days. In contrast, the H3N8 strain sheds in a shorter duration, approximately 3-4 days. Therefore, a quarantine period of at least 21-25 days is recommended for an infected dog, with variations based on the specific strain.

  • Quarantine Protocols: During the quarantine period, it's crucial to keep the infected dog away from other dogs and cats to prevent any potential transmission. This includes avoiding shared spaces, common areas, and social interactions with other animals.

Understanding the importance of quarantine is fundamental not only for the recovery of the infected dog but also for safeguarding the broader canine community from the risk of contagion.


Acupressure for Immune System Boost in Dogs

As flu season looms, the vulnerability of those with weakened immune systems becomes evident. This holds true for our canine companions as well. To fortify your dog's defenses against viral infections, consider the potential benefits of acupressure, a holistic approach that directly influences the autonomic nervous system, subsequently enhancing the immune system's responsiveness. This section explores the connection between acupressure and immune system strengthening.

dog acupressure will boost immune system to protect against dog flu

The Role of Acupressure in Immune System Boost

Acupressure involves the strategic application of pressure to specific points on the body, stimulating the autonomic nervous system. This stimulation, in turn, contributes to an improved immune system response, enhancing the body's natural resistance to disease. By incorporating acupressure into your dog's preventative care routine, you can proactively support their immune system and reduce susceptibility to infections.


Complementary Approach with Veterinary Recommendations

While acupressure is a valuable addition to preventative care, it is essential to complement this holistic approach with veterinary recommendations. Working in tandem with your veterinarian ensures a comprehensive healthcare strategy for your dog. Acupressure can aid in reducing signs of inflammation, promoting blood flow for lymphatic drainage, alleviating nasal congestion, and providing natural pain relief.


Benefits of Acupressure in Preventative Care

Beyond immune system support, acupressure offers a range of benefits in preventative care. It serves as a non-invasive and complementary to traditional veterinary practices. The reduction of inflammation, improved circulation, and natural pain relief make acupressure a valuable component of maintaining your dog's overall health and well-being.


Schedule your dog a preventative acupressure session at least once a month to support their natural bodily functions.

You can also attend an acupressure class to learn points that you can do at home with your pup! Check out our events page to attend our upcoming events or contact us to become a host!


Can Dog Flu Affect Humans? Unraveling the Facts and Fictions

dog cant spread the canine influenza to you

Amid concerns about the transmission of diseases between animals and humans, it's crucial to address the question: Can dog flu spread to humans? According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), there is currently no substantiated evidence or research indicating that humans can contract dog flu from infected dogs.


The specific strains of influenza A virus that affect dogs, such as H3N2 and H3N8, have not been documented to infect humans. The unique nature of these viruses in dogs has not shown any indication of cross-species transmission to humans, providing reassurance to pet owners concerned about their own health.


However, it's noteworthy that dog flu can, in rare instances, spread to cats. While the likelihood of transmission to humans is deemed extremely low, precautionary measures are advised, especially if there are other pets in the household.


In essence, if your dog is diagnosed with the flu virus, there's no need for undue concern about contracting the illness yourself. The focus should be on providing proper care and attention to your furry companion during their recovery.

dog relaxing during an acupressure session for immune boost



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